Choosing the Right Program

Kikuyu Classmates I
Ngurumo Primary School, Kenya
Photograph by Ron Moffatt (in remembrance)


Kikuyu, Kenya

  • Your study abroad experience has the great potential to bring about enduring transformations in your life.
  • The most effective programs to achieve these transformations are the ones that go beyond academic tourism and force students not just to go into another culture but to enter into this other culture and be part of this other culture (Berry , 2002).

Why is it important?

The world in which today's students will make choices and compose lives is:

  • One of disruption rather than certainty, and
  • One of interdependence rather than insularity.

To succeed in a chaotic environment, graduates will need to be:

  • Intellectually resilient.
  • Cross-culturally and scientifically literate.
  • Technologically adept.
  • Ethically anchored.
  • Fully prepared for a future of continuous and cross-disciplinary learning.

(College Learning for the New Global Century, 2007).

Therefore, the most important characteristic needed for the challenges of the 21st century "is the ability to deal with serious worldwide problems as a member of a worldwide society" (Parker, Ninomiya, and Cogan 1999, 125).

Your study abroad can give you the tools to face these challenges by helping you to develop cultural competencies as describe by The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS):

Milton J. Bennett's Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS)

Denial Defense Minimization Acceptance Adaption Integration
Ethnocentric Stages Ethnorelative Stages


  • People are not born interculturally competent; culture learning is a process that takes time and effort (like learning a language).
  • What is cultural competency and when do you know if you are competent in a host culture?
  • Milton Bennett’s DMIS is one way of looking at intercultural competency.
  • Bennett examines the attitudes and degrees of awareness toward cultural differences on a continuum.
  • As a person’s experience of cultural difference becomes more complex and sophisticated, the greater increase in intercultural competency.
  • Learn how to determine your level of intercultural sensitivity and facilitate activities to move you through the various stages

Materials taken from Paige, Cohen, Kappler, Chi, Lassegard (2002). Maximizing Study Abroad. University of Minnesota.

Which types of programs are more likely to move you along this continuum ?

Assessing The Study Abroad Experience

Intensity Factor Index

Factors Less Intense <----------------------------> More Intense         
 Cultural Differences  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
 Ethnocentrism  1  2   3   4  5   6  7   8  9  10
 Language   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10
 Cultural Immersion   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10
 Cultural Isolation   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10
 Prior Intercultural Experience   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10
 Expectation   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10
 Visibility / Invisibility   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10
 Status   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8   9  10
 Power and Control  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9   10
 Overall Intensity Score: ___________


Sample of an Intensity Factor Index for an American student in the UK.


Seven Components of Overseas Programs for Level Classification

These seven components interact in various and complex ways and the different blends of these components constitute different levels (Engle & Engle, 2003)

Seven Components of Overseas Program Level Classification
 1. Length of student sojourn  Level One: Study Tour
 2. Entry target language competence   Level Two: Short-term Study 
 3. Language used in course work   Level Three: Cross-Cultural Contact Program 
 4. Context of academic work   Level Four: Cross-Cultural Encounter Program  
 5. Types of student housing   Level Five: Cross-Cultural Immersion Program 
 6. Provisions for guided/structured cultural interaction    
 7. Guided reflection on cultural experiences   


Level One:
Study Tour
Level Two:
Short-term Study
Level Three:
Contact Program
Level Four:
Encounter Program
Level Five:
Immersion Program
 Duration  Several days
 to few weeks.
 3 to 8 weeks, 
 summer programs
 Semester  Semester to
 academic year
 Semester to
 academic year
 Entry target-language
 Elementary to 
 Elementary to 
 Elementary to 
 Pre-advance to 
 Language used in course
 English  English and target-
 English and
 Target-language in
 all curricular and
 Academic work context  Home institution
 In-house or institute
 for foreign students
 Student group or
 with other 
 international students
 In house students
 Local norms, partial
 or complete direct
 Housing  Collective  Collective and/or
 Collective, home stay
 visit, home stay
 Home stay rental
 or integration home
 Individual integration
 home stay
 Provisions for cultural
 interaction, experiential learning
 None  None  None or limited  Optional participa-
 tion in occasional
 integration activities
 Required regular
 participation in cultural
 integration program, 
 extensive direct cultural
 contact via service 
 learning, work internship
 Guided reflection on cultural
 None  Orientation program  Orientation program  Orientation program,
 initial and ongoing
 Orientation program, 
 mentoring, on-going
 orientation or course in
 cross-cultural perspectives, 
 reflective writing and research


 But intercultural competency or awareness of others is not and end in itself, "but rather the first step in the development of an intellectual process by which the  students will be able to approach social and political problems" (Brewer, 2004, p. 10).

 Therefore, FCB expects that graduates who study abroad should have:

  • Ability to look at and approach problems as a member of a global society.
  • Ability to work with others in a cooperative way and to take responsibility for one's roles/duties within society.
  • Ability to understand, accept, appreciate, and tolerate cultural differences.
  • Capacity to think in a critical and systemic way.
  • Willingness to resolve conflict in a nonviolent manner.
  • Willingness and ability to participate in politics at local, national, and international levels.
  • Willingness to change one's lifestyle and consumption habits to protect the environment.
  • Ability to be sensitive toward and to defend human rights (e.g., rights of women, ethnic minorities). *

* Source: Parker, W. C., Ninomiya, A. & Cogan, J. (1999). Educating World Citizens: Toward Multinational Curriculum Development. American Educational Research Journal, 36 (2), 117-145.